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ABBOCCATO

Italian term referred to a slightly sweet wine.

ACETALDEHYDE

The molecule responsible for the “oxidized” smell in wine. It originates if the contact of the must or wine with oxygen is very long.

ACIDITY

The acids of the wine contribute to the sensation of freshness. There are numerous acids in the wine and each contributes in a more or less evident way to the freshness of the wine.

AGING

It’s the period the wine needs before to be bottled. It can take place in steel tanks, barrels or even in bottles.

ALCOHOL

It is produced by yeasts that transform sugar in Alcol and Co2. It gives the wine a pseudocaloric sensation.

AMABILE

Italian term indicates semi-sweet wines.

ANTIOXIDANT

Molecules that help to prevent the oxidation process.

ANTOCYANINS

They are colored pigments found in fruit and flowers. They belong to the chemical class of Polyphenols and are responsible for the color transmitted by the grape skins to the wine.

AOC

Appellation of origin controlee. It is an identification of French wine (or food products). The AOC label is always followed by the name of a geographical area. Example AOC Cotes de Provence. The link between wine and territory is closely linked and the AOC label guarantees this link.

APICULATED YEAST

It is the yeast naturally present in grapes. It does not have a good resistance to alcohol and by not being selected, there is no certainty that it does not produce unwanted or toxic substances.

AVA

American Viticultural Area: this is how US legislation identifies specific vine growing areas.

BARRIQUE

A small wooden barrel, with a capacity of 225-228 liters, in which the wine can be refined. The barrel tends to give some typical aromas of wood to wine, such as the aroma of cocoa, tobacco, spices. It makes the wine softer and more harmonious in general.

BIODYNAMIC

Production regime in which the use of chemicals is prohibited.

BLANC DE BLANC

Refers to white sparkling wines made only from white grapes.

BLANC DE NOIRS

Refers to white sparkling wines made from red grapes. Of course the red grapes follow a white vinification.

BLEND

When 2 or more different vines contribute to the production of wine. Some blends are famous, others are the result of the oenologist’s genius. Example of one famous blend is the Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot.

BOTTLING

One of the most delicate stages in the production of wine. At this stage it is essential to consider the amount of oxygen present in the bottle because it will have an impact on the evolution of bottled wine.

BRIX

A measure that expresses the concentration of the sugar content in the grape and gives an indication of the future alcohol content of the wine.

CARBON DIOXIDE

It is produced by yeasts that transform sugar in Alcol and Co2. The sparkling wine bubbles are carbon dioxide bubbles.

CHANGE OF COLOR

The phase in which the grape begins to change color.

CHARMAT METHOD

Production method for sparkling wine. The second refermentation, the one designed to produce the bubbles that we will find in the bottle, takes place in autoclaves. In this way, being under pressure, the bubbles produced remain in the bottle and will not disappear.

CHATEAUX

French term and literally means “castle”. It is used next to the name of a winery.

CLARIFICATION

Vinification process preceding bottling. Here the sediments are removed to prevent them from ending up in the bottle.

CLASSIC METHOD

Sparkling wine production method. The second refermentation, the one designed to produce the bubbles that we will find in the bottle, takes place in the bottle. The period in which the wine is in contact with the yeasts in the bottle can also be very long. The bubbles of Carbon Dioxide thus produced, not being able to come out, will dissolve in the wine.

CLASSICO

The classic mention in a wine refers to a wine obtained in the most classic area within a denomination. The production disciplinary will clearly indicate which are these areas.

CREMANT

The term indicates a classic method sparkling wine obtained outside the Champagne production area (Epernay). The term Champagne can be used only for wines obtained with the classic method in the Epernay area.

CRUSHING

Process in which the grapes are pressed, i.e. crushed to obtain the must.

CRYOMACERATION

Literally cold maceration. The crushed grapes are brought to a temperature of 5 degrees in order to favor the extraction of the primary aromas of the grapes.

CULTIVAR

Indicates the variety of the vine. Examples of cultivars are Sangiovese, Negroamaro, Cabernet Sauvignon.

CUVÉE

Union of different types of wine (by variety and vintage) to produce a sparkling wine.

DECANTER

Special glass or crystal, with a very elegant shape, wide at the bottom and narrow neck, has the function to oxygenate those red wines dating before being tasted.

DEGORGEMENT

Process by which for the production of Classic Method Sparkling Wine, the residues of the yeasts are eliminated after the second fermentation which takes place in the bottle.

DE-STEM

Process in which the grapes are detached from the peduncles and stalks on which it grows. When the grapes arrive in the cellar, de-stemming is usually the first process. There is a machine that performs this action and is called a de stemmer.

DE-STEMMER

Process in which the grapes are crushed and de-stemmed. In the same machine, the grapes are detached from their peduncles and stalks and crushed.

DIRECT PRESSING

One of the production methods of rose wine. Once the grapes arrive in the cellar, this is de-stemmed and subsequently crushed to obtain the must. Once the desired pink color is obtained, this must will be pressed and the juice obtained will continue its vinification process.

DOC

Designation of origin. The DOC label is accompanied by the name of the grape variety typical of that area. Example “DOC Montepulciano d’Abruzzo”. It means that there is a link between Montepulciano and that specific area. This link is guaranteed by a production specification, which describes the rules of production of the wine and of the production area from which the grapes must come.

DOCG

Designation of origin and guaranteed. Here too the origin of a wine is indicated. The DOCG specification is more restrictive than the DOC specification. It means that the production rules are more restrictive, in terms of grape yield for example or in terms of grape origin. The DOCG area is smaller than the DOC area.

DOSAGE ZERO

Dosage is made by wine and sugar. In the production of Spumante, after disgorgement, a dosage is added to the wine. We talk about Dosage Zero when this dosage is not added and consequently the sparkling wine will have a very low sugar content.

DOSAGE

Dosage is made by wine and sugar. In the production of Spumante, after disgorgement, a dosage is added to the wine. This addition gives the sparkling wine the company’s signature.

DRY

Refers to wines that have no sugary residue and for which the sweet taste will not be felt in the mouth. 

EISWEIN

A wine obtained in cold climates where the grapes are harvested when they are totally frozen because of the low temperatures. These grapes are more concentrated in sugars and aromatic substances.

FERMENTATION

Fundamental process for wine production. Fermentation is a metabolism of yeasts thanks to which these microorganisms are able to eat the sugar present in the must and transform it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

FILTRATION

Operation used to separate solid particles from a liquid. Wine is a compound in which several particles are formed during winemaking. Generally, before bottling these solid particles are removed by filtration.

FREESTANDING SYSTEM

One of the most ancient forms of vines breeding.

FULL BODY

Refers to those wines rich in alcohol and structure.

GRAPE

The berry, the fruit of the grape. Several berries make up the bunch.

GRAPES

Fruit of the vine from which the wine is obtained. It is found precisely on the vine in the form of clusters, i.e. grouping of grapes.

GUYOT TRAINING SYSTEM

Vine growing system, widespread and used.

INTENSITY

It refers to a wine whose smells are intense, therefore easily perceptible 

LABEL

The identity card of a wine. Some necessary information can be given, such as the producer, the type of wine or the vintage. 

LACTIC BACTERIA

Microorganisms that we find in wine. In wine they are responsible for malolactic fermentation. 

MACERATION

Process in which contact between the skins and grape juice takes place. Once the grapes are pressed, we will have a mass of skins and juice, the must. In this phase, the passage of coloring substances (anthocyanins) takes place, but not only, from the skin to the wine. The longer the contact time, the more substances will pass into the liquid which will become wine. 

MINERALITY

It refers to some hints that can be perceived in wine. They are light sulphurous aromas which in the complexity of the wine can remind us of the flint. It is one of the most abused terms in the world of wine tasting.

MUST

The product we get once the grapes are pressed. It will be a mass of grape juice, skins, grape seeds. The sugar content in the must is particularly high and gives us an indication of the future alcohol content of the wine.

NOBLE ROT

Mold that in particular conditions of humidity and climate metabolizes the grape skin. The wines that will be obtained will have aromatic scents. The wines made from this grape are called botrytized wines. 

NON AROMATIC WINE

It is the wine produced from non-aromatic grapes. The smells that we will perceive in this wine are those due to fermentation and any aging. 

ONION SKIN

It refers to a color of rosé wine that slightly reminds the nuance of the onionskin. 

ORGANIC

Referred to a wine obtained by following a particular specification. Organic wine is not a wine without chemicals, but a wine according to which their use is limited. 

OVERNIGHT WINE

Refers to rosé wines whose maceration in contact with the skins lasts only one night. Widespread method for the production of Valtènesi rosé. 

PERLAGE

The effervescence of the wine, due to the presence of Co2 bubbles and bubbles. The co2 is released as soon as the sparkling wine is poured into the glass. Overall, the size of the bubbles, the quantity and their persistence in the glass must be assessed.

PHYLLOXERA

An insect that damages the roots of the vine. It destroyed the European vineyard in the mid 1800s and since then mainly American vine roots have been used which are more resistant to this insect. European varieties are grafted onto these roots.

POLYPHENOLS

Family of chemical molecules with antioxidant function. The most famous polyphenols that we find in wine are tannins and anthocyanins.

PRESSING

rocess in which the pressing takes place thanks to a special press. The press is used for the production of rose wine through the direct pressing method.

PRODUCTION AREA

Refers to the area where a wine is produced. Some areas are more suitable than others and are recognized as DOC or DOCG.

PRUINOSE

Waxy patina that is found on the grape skin with protective functions.

SAIGNEE

Other way to obtain rosé wine. While the red wine is fermenting in contact with the skins, part of the liquid is taken. In this way the red wine will concentrate on substances taken from the skins and the liquid taken, which will have the desired rosy color, will proceed its path to become rosé wine.

SPARKLING WINE

Once we obtain the wine, we can mix this to other wine and then add other yeasts and sugar to have another fermentation to make bubbles of CO2 we will find in the bottle. The sparkling wine can be made by traditional method and charmat method.

STEM-CRUSHING

Process in which the grape is crushed and de-stemmed. In the same machine the grap is detached by his peduncles and stem and is crushed.

RACK-OFF

Process whereby a wine is transferred from one tank to another in order to separate it from sediments and yeasts. 

RESIDUAL SUGAR

The amount of sugar that is not converted by the yeast into alcohol and therefore remains in the wine.

RISERVA

The mention Riserva in a wine refers to those wines subjected to an aging period of at least two years for red wines and one year for white wines. The aging period depends on the different specifications and applies only to DOC and DOCG wines. 

SAIGNÉE

Method to obtain rosé wine. While the red wine is fermenting on contact with the skins, part of the liquid is withdrawn. In this way the red wine will concentrate of substances taken from the skins while the liquid taken, which will have the desired pink color, will proceed on its way to becoming rosé wine.

SEEDS

Grape seeds. They have a high amount of tannins.

SELECTED YEAST

Yeasts selected by the oenologist to conduct fermentation. They are chosen on the basis of some characteristics that may be resistance to alcohol or the ability not to produce toxic substances.

SKINS

The external layer of the grape has a protective function. Contains anthocyanins, molecules responsible for the dark color of grapes and tannins.

SOMMELIER

The person that reccomends the right food-wine pairing knowing how to communicate with humility and simplicity.

SPARKLING

Once the wine is produced, it can be mixed with other wines and after this blend yeasts and sugars are added to make a second fermentation take place to produce the bubbles of Carbon Dioxide that we will find in the bottle. The sparkling wine can be produced by traditional method or charmat method.

SUGAR

Molecule responsible for sweet taste.

SULFUR DIOXIDE

It is used as an antioxidant and antiseptic in wine. If there was no sulfur dioxide, the wines would tend to oxidize prematurely or would host unwanted microorganisms.

SUPERIORE

The mention Superiore refers to DOC and DOCG wines that follow stricter rules of the production disciplinary. They have a higher alcohol content than the same wine which does not bear the mention of Superiore. 

TANKS

Usually large container. It can be of various types, the most common being that in stainless steel. Here the must is put so that maceration and / or fermentation can take place. Also used for wine aging.

TANNIC

Referred to a tannic, astringent wine with a high amount of tannins. Red wines are tannic.

TANNIN

They are compounds present in the peel and grape seeds. They are responsible for that tactile sensation called “astringency” in wine for which we perceive a dehydration and dryness of the gums, tongue and palate.

TASTING

Analysis of wine through the sense organs.

TERROIR

One of the most abused words in the world of wine. Indicates the indissoluble link between wine and its specific territory. By territory we really mean all the natural components that can influence the final product. So let’s talk about the climate, soil type, history and tradition of the grapes linked to that territory.

TRAINING SYSTEMS

It refers to the different type of vine farming.

VINE

The climbing shrub from which the grapes are obtained.

VINEGAR

It is obtained from some bacteria that transform alcohol into vinegar.

VINIFICATION

A series of processes in which grapes are transformed into wine. Certainly the most important process is fermentation.

VINTAGE

It means harvest of the year. It refers to the year in which the grapes have been harvested and turned into wine.

WINE

Product obtained from the alcoholic fermentation of grape must.

WINE GLASS

We use it to drink wine. Every wine wants its glass because the glass helps to express the characteristics of a wine.

WINEMAKER

Who follows the different stages of the process of transformation, production and aging of wine.

WINEMAKING

The science that studies the processes behind winemaking