AAGING, period in which the wine just made needs time to rest before to go out from the cellar. Aging could be in the oak barrels, stainless tanks or also in the bottle.
ANTHOCYANINS. Colored pigments found in fruit and flowers. They belong to the chemical class of polyphenols and are responsible for the color transmitted by the grape skins to the wine.
AOC, Appellation d’origine contrôlée. It is an identification of the wine (or food products). The French label AOC has always followed by the name of a geographical zone. Example of AOC is AOC Cotes de Provence. The link between wine and territory is strictly connected and the label AOC guarantees this link.
BBARRIQUE. It is a small wooden barrel, with a capacity of 225-228 liters, in which the wine can be aged. The barrel tends to give some typical aromas of wood to the wine, such as the aroma of cocoa, tobacco, spices. Makes the wine softer and generally more harmonious.
BLEND, when in the production of wine there are two or more variety of grapes. Some blend are famous, the genius of the winemaker makes other.
CCHARMAT METHOD, method to make sparkling wine. The second fermentation, that makes the bubbles we will find in the bottle, takes place in autoclaves. In this way, because the wine is under pressure in the autoclaves, the bubbles will be in the bottle and they not disappear like it happens with only one fermentation. Charmat method is the way to make Prosecco.
CLASSIC METHOD, sparkling wine production method. The second fermentation, the one used to produce the bubbles that we will find in the bottle, takes place in the bottle. The period in which the wine is in contact with the yeasts in the bottle can also be very long. The bubbles of carbon dioxide thus produced cannot escape and dissolve in the wine.
CRUSHING, process in which grape is crushed to obtain the must.
DDESTEM, process in which the grape is destemmed, so it is detached from the peduncles and stems on which it grows. When the grapes arrive in the cellar, it is usually the first process. A machine carries out this removal.
DOC, Denominazione di Origine Controllata. It is an identification of the wine (or food products). The Italian label DOC has always followed by the name of a geographical zone. Example is “DOC MONTEPULCIANO D’ABRUZZO”. It means there is a link between Montepulciano (grape) and Abruzzo (specific zone). This link is guaranteed by production disciplinary that describes all the rules to make that wine and from which part the grapes must originated.
DOCG, Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita. The origin of a wine is indicated by the DOCG. The DOCG disciplinary is more restrictive than the DOC specification. It means that the production rules are more restrictive, in terms of grape yield for example or in terms of grape origin. The DOCG area is smaller than the DOC area.
DIRECT PRESSING. It is one of the way to make rosé. Once we have the grape, this is destemmed and crushed to obtain the must. Once we have the rosé colour we want, this must will be pressed and the juice we obtain will follow his vinification process.
FFERMENTATION, fundamental process to make wine. The fermentation is a metabolism of yeasts thanks to which these microorganisms are able to eat the sugar present in the must and transform it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. FILTRATION. Operation that takes place in different food industries including in the wine industry. It serves to separate solid particles from a liquid. Wine is a compound in which different particles are formed during vinification. Generally, these solid particles are removed before bottling.
GGRAPE, fruit of the vine from which we obtain wine.
It is found precisely on the vine in the form of bunches, that is, of grouping of grapes.
GRAPE SEEDS. They have a greater quantity of tannins.
MMACERATION, process in which there is the contact between the skins and grape juice. Once the grape is crushed, we will have a mass of skins and juice, the must. At this stage the passage of coloring substances (anthocyanins) takes place from the skin to the wine. The longer the contact time, the more the substance will pass into the liquid that will become wine.
MUST, the product we obtain once the grape is crushed. It is a mass of juice, skins, seeds. The level of sugar in the must is very high and it is an indication about the future alcohol degree.
PPRESSING, process in which the pressing take places in a specific press. To make rosé wine through the method of “direct press” we use the press.
SSAIGNEE, other way to obtain rosé wine. While the red wine is fermenting in contact with the skins, part of the liquid is taken. In this way the red wine will concentrate on substances taken from the skins and the liquid taken, which will have the desired rosy color, will proceed its path to become rosé wine.
SPARKLING WINE. Once we obtain the wine, we can mix this to other wine and then add other yeasts and sugar to have another fermentation to make bubbles of CO2 we will find in the bottle. The sparkling wine can be made by traditional method and charmat method.
STEM-CRUSHING, process in which the grape is crushed and de-stemmed. In the same machine the grap is detached by his peduncles and stem and is crushed.
TTANNINS, they are compounds present in different fruits and plants and also in the skin and seeds of the grapes They belong to the chemical class of polyphenols and we find them in greater quantities in red wine, because red wine is produced through a long contact between skins and must and then more tannins will pass into the must. The tannins are responsible for the sensation of astringency in the wine, or that feeling that leaves you practically without saliva in your mouth. Try tasting a raw artichoke leaf and you will know what “astringency” means J
TANKS, usually large container. It can be of various types, the most common being the stainless steel one. Here we put the must so the maceration and / or fermentation can take place. Also used for wine refining.
TERROIR, one of the most abused words in the world of wine. It indicates the indissoluble link between wine and its specific territory. Territory really means all the natural components that can influence the final product. So we are talking about climate, soil type, history and tradition of the grape linked to that territory.
VVINIFICATION, a series of processes in which grapes are transformed into wine. Tmost important process is fermentation.
WWINE, it is made from fermentation of the must.